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African American History

The Bristol Bus Boycott Of 1963 – An Important History Of Black Resistance

The Bristol Bus Boycott Of 1963 An Important History Of Black Resistance

The black population of Bristol on April 30, 1963, protested against the Bristol Omnibus Company and the Transportation and General Workers’ Union (TGWU) racist employment practices. There were an estimated 6,000 black people in Bristol in 1963. Bristol was slow to hire black bus crews unlike the hiring and visibility of black bus crews in cities such as London and Bath lines.  The TGWU’s failure to address its discriminatory hiring policy also influenced a 1955 vote that prohibited black bus crews. Although blacks were part of the TGWU, they were primarily relegated to work in maintenance and the canteens. Moreover, by 1958 the black unemployment rate was twice the reported figure of white unemployment in Bristol.

Paul Stephenson, who was born in Essex, England to West African and British parents and an ex-Royal Air Foreman, explored exposing the Omnibus Company’s discriminatory practices. Teaching night classes at the time and knowledgeable of the 1955-1956 Montgomery Bus Boycott in the United States, Stephenson recruited one of their best pupils, 18-year-old Guy Baily, and together decided to respond to a vacant bus conductor employment advertisement in Bristol’s Evening Post. At his interview, the bus manager told Baily, “We do not hire black people.” To confirm this, Stephenson went to the Company’s General Manager, Ian Patey, who affirmed the Omnibus Company’s practices. Roy Hackett, Owen Henry, Audley Evans, and Prince Brown formed the West Indian Development Council, a coalition to challenge and publicize the Omnibus Company’s racist policy. On April 29, 1963, the coalition announced that no blacks would ride the bus the subsequent day. The April 30 bus boycott garnered national support and disapproval from opposite sides.

Bristol University students who supported the boycott were harassed and attacked in public. They marched earnestly, however, with placards stating, “EVERY MAN HAS THE RIGHT TO WORK.” Local Labour MP Tony Benn remarked, “I shall stay off the buses, even if I have to find a bike!” Famous Trinidadian cricketer Sir Learie Constantine wrote letters to the Omnibus Company in support of the boycott. There were oppositional newspaper headlines such as, “Bristol Bus Crew Back the Boss” and “We Won’t Work with West Indians,” which further underscored how divisive the bus boycott was on race.

The Bristol Bus Boycott also revealed white working-class wage earners’ economic fragility and the public’s perception of black masculinity. After months of boycotting, the TGWU in a meeting with 500 bus workers agreed on August 27, 1963, to end the color bar, and Patey publicly announced it “dead” the next day. Raghibir Singh, a British-Asian Sikh, on September 17, 1963, became Bristol’s first non-white bus conductor. Soon afterward Black bus crews were then hired.

The hiring of non-white bus crews, however, did not end discrimination and racism in workspaces and in buses. The 1965 Race Relations Act made “racial discrimination unlawful in public places,” and the 1968 Race Relations Act made racial housing and employment practices illegal. In 2009, Bailey, Hackett, and Stephenson were individually awarded the prestigious Order of the British Empire (OBE) medal for organizing the Bristol Bus Boycott. After the TWGU merged with the Unite Union in 2007, they issued an apology in February 2013 for their role in obstructing the hiring of black bus workers in Bristol in 1963.

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African American History

Meet Jesse Eugene Russell, The Black Man Who Invented The Digital Cell Phone

Meet Jesse Eugene Russell The Black Man Who Invented The Digital Cell Phone

The technological and scientific ingenuity of the Black race (and men such as Jesse Eugene Russell) has been one aspect of world history that has been hidden, under-appreciated, and belittled.

Jesse Eugene Russell
Jesse Eugene Russell

Today in Africa, millions of Africans attribute the invention of the smartphone (among many other things) to the Europeans. They do not know that the glorified digital phone was invented by a Black man like themselves. And this points to our gospel about teaching Black people worldwide about the prowess and achievements of their forebears – African History is important.

Jesse Eugene Russell’s story is one that makes us exceptionally proud. He is not the only Black person who has had a tremendous impact on the telecommunications industry. Just like him, a woman, Dr. Marian Rogers Croak, invented the VOIP system for making calls over the internet. And they are just a few in the internet and telecommunications industry.

Early Life And Education Of Jesse Eugene Russell

Jesse Eugen Russell was born in Nashville, Tennessee, Unites States of America, on April 26, 1948, to a family of 13. He had two sisters and eight brothers, and their parents were Charles Albert Russell and Mary Louise Russell.

Just like many black people in America at that time, the Russell family lived in a very poor and socially deprived part of Nashville. Jesse Eugene Russell engaged more in athletics in his early years. He would later go to school, when he got an opportunity to attend a summer education program at Fisk University, in Nashville, Tennessee.

After the summer education program, he did exceptionally well and then moved on to study electrical engineering at Tennessee State University. In 1972, he graduated with a Bachelor of Science Degree (BSEE) in Electrical Engineering. And to prove that he was a born genius, he graduated as a top honor student in the School of Engineering.

Jesse Eugen Russell’s academic qualifications and excellence set him apart and made him the first African-American that be given a job by AT&T from a Historically Black Colleges and University (HBCUs). He also became the first Black person in the USA to be selected as the Eta Kappa Nu Outstanding Young Electrical Engineer of the Year in 1980.

Jesse Eugene Russell went further in his academic achievements to obtain a Master’s degree in Electrical Engineering (MSEE), in 1973, from Stanford University, in Palo Alto, California.

When And How He Invented The Digital Mobile Phone

Jesse Eugene Russell created the concept for the wireless digital phone and communication, while he was working as an engineer at AT&T-Bell Laboratories in 1988. He developed the world’s first digital cellular base station and holds the patent for the digital services that many companies of the world use today.

Before Russell invented the wireless mobile device, the mobile devices available were mainly used in cars or other vehicles. This was mainly because mobile devices needed the power to be able to transmit signals to a cell tower. And that point the power needed to drive a mobile phone was too much to fit into a wireless movable device.

It was Russell’s ingenuity and creation of the mobile device that made it possible for mobile phones to be handy and affordable today. His innovation made it possible for mobile devices to transmit signals between the handsets we use today, and the cell phone towers.

Russell’s supervisor at the AT&T-Bell Laboratories had come to him with an impossible task that no other employee wanted to handle. Both AT&T and other major telecommunications companies found it hard to figure out a way to make cell phones into wireless mobile phones. Russell accepted the task of figuring it out, and he did.

In a statement about his job and how he was tasked to create a wireless mobile phone, he said: I’ll never forget the first day on the job, I called a meeting with all of the managers… they were all white, I was the only black hiring. And I was saying, ‘Well, what’s the problem?’ Because they [AT&T] were losing so much money, it was pathetic… They said, “The problem is that we can only make money when people are in their cars, the phone rings then they answer…but most of the time, people are not in their cars.” “I said.’ Well, that seems like an easy problem to solve, right?’ Why don’t we just take the phones out of the car and put them on the people.”

A Genius With Over 100 Patents To His Name

After Jesse Eugen Russell invented the wireless mobile device, he went ahead to invent other groundbreaking innovations in the field of wireless communication systems. He continued to be a leading name in the architectures and technology which were related to radio access networks, end-user devices, and in-building wireless communication systems.

Jesse Eugene created a company called incNETWORKS Inc, and he is the Chairman and CEO. His company is a broadband wireless communications company based in New Jersey. His company now focuses on 4G broadband wireless communications technologies, networks, and services.

Some of the patents to Russell’s name are: “Base Station for Mobile Radio Telecommunications Systems,” (1992), the “Mobile Data Telephone,” (1993), and the “Wireless Communication Base Station” (1998).


We are at a place in history where the hidden excellence of the Black race is being dug up and exposed to the whole world. More so, technological, social, ideological, and scientific achievements have been excluded from the curriculum of African schools, and that has made our research and revealing articles more important.

Many Africans believe that the mobile phone was invented by Europeans. But the truth is that it was not. So, please after reading this, help us share this article so that every Black person and family in the world would know this truth.

Africans and indeed all Black people worldwide are not inferior or technologically backward, and we must scream that in all corners of the earth.

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African American History

Garett Morgan: Black Man Who Invented the Upgraded Traffic Light, The Gas Mask, And Improved Sewing Machine

Garett Morgan Black Man Who Invented the Upgraded Traffic Light The Gas Mask And Improved Sewing Machine

Humanity owes the Black race a lot of apologies for concealing her achievements and denying her ingenuity. As we dig more and more into Black history, we are surprised to find that the Black race has contributed immensely to the progress of humanity, far more than the caucasian world is willing to admit.

Garett Morgan
Garett Morgan

Children all over Africa grow up, learning through the British, French, and other curriculums. These various curriculums do nothing to teach Black children their true history. Why would they?

They focus on teaching African children lies and half-truths about themselves – teachings that glorify the European and make him look like a god over supposedly inferior Black people.

Garett Augustus Morgan was an outstanding African-American inventor of all time. He is the origin of the urban traffic revolution. He re-invented the traffic signs which are today still used to ensure safety on our roads.

He invented the gas mask with which we can protect ourselves from toxic gases, and he also invented the hair relaxer, among many other things.

Garett was one of seven children of a poor family, from Kentucky, USA. A self-educated man who didn’t go beyond elementary school, he moved to Cleveland in 1895, where he was hired as a sewing machine technician. In 1907, motivated by his job, he invented the better sewing machine, and later on, invented the hair relaxer.

In 1914, Garrett designed the modern gas mask which protects users from inhaling toxic gases but at the same time does not prevent respiration. Due to racism, selling his gas mask to the firefighter’s companies proved impossible, so he just made samples for himself.

In 1916, there was an explosion in a hydraulic station tunnel which was 75 meters below Erie Lake, 32 people were trapped in the tunnel and fortunately, Garrett heard about it.

Alongside his brother Franck, they put on their gas mask and headed for the location of the incident, carried all 32 persons out of the tunnel on their back, and became heroes, as the news spread like wide fire.

By reason of this event, his invention had proven its efficacy. His mask was first utilized by firemen and soldiers during World War 1.

Garrett would later invent the traffic sign system in 1923 after witnessing a ghastly accident between an automobile, a cabriolet, and a horse. The horse would later be killed because it was severely injured, the driver of the automobile collapsed, and two people were extracted from the cabriolet. The traffic signal system has today advanced and is now being used all over the world.

Garett was not just an inventor but also one who had a heart for his roots. He was a member of the Black lobby, the NAACP, and in 1920, co-created an African-American journal called Cleveland Call. He urged Black people to buy shares from his company and was honored by the city of Cleveland which gave him a gold medal set with diamonds. Garett passed on on July 27th, 1963.

The story of men such as Garett should form the foundation of Black consciousness and emancipation from the gross dependency on Europeans and their narratives. Our people have been made to believe that no good thing can come out of Africa and Black people in general, but that is a big lie.

It has been the intention of our detractors to discredit the Black race – this reinforces white supremacy and the need for Europeans and white foreigners to continue to interfere with the affairs of African governance, political, social, religious, and circular life.

We must do our best to teach our people these achievements. Because if these Black men could achieve such a feat in an era where there was no internet and computers, then imagine what we can achieve in this time and era.

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African American History

Meet 19th-Century Black Dentist Who Invented The Oblate Palate And Golf Tee – Dr. George Franklin Gran

Meet 19th-Century Black Dentist Who Invented The Oblate Palate And Golf Tee

Butler R. Wilson, a Boston civil rights attorney, called him “one of the most skilled and well-known dentists among the younger members of the profession.” Dr. George Franklin Grant, a black dentist, was not just a successful dentist, but also an inventor. He invented and patented the oblate palate, a prosthetic device that allows people with cleft palates to talk normally.

Dr. George Franklin Gran | African History Facts
Dr. George Franklin Gran

Grant, a keen golfer, created and patented a golf tee in 1899 as a result of frustration. When playing the first stroke of a hole from the teeing ground, the golf tee is a small piece of equipment that lifts the golf ball off the ground. To put it another way, Grant’s invention gave golfers more control over their clubs, as well as the speed and direction of their drives. Despite this, it took nearly a century for the late-nineteenth-century Boston dentist, who also made history at Harvard, to be recognized for his invention.

Grant was born in 1847 in Oswego, New York, to former slaves. At the age of 15, he began an apprenticeship in dentistry with local dentist Dr. Albert Smith. Before becoming an assistant at his lab, he worked as his errand boy. Grant moved to Boston when he was 19 years old, where he worked as a dental assistant until being accepted into the new Harvard Dental School two years later.

Grant graduated with honors from Harvard Dental School in 1870, the same year that Richard Theodore Greener became the first Black graduate of Harvard College. He was the school’s second African-American graduate. Dr. Robert Tanner Freeman, who had graduated from the Dental School the previous year, was the first.

Grant was hired as the Dental School’s first Black faculty member after graduation. He spent years at the Dental School, concentrating on the treatment of patients with deformities on the roofs of their mouths. Grant made personalized implants for persons with cleft palates, according to historians, and these truly assisted people who struggled to speak and eat. He had treated 115 patients by 1889. He became well-known in the dentistry community in the United States and around the world as a result of his work, which included his distinctive oblate palate, and he eventually left Harvard to start his own practice.

In the meantime, Grant was a founder member and president of the Harvard Odontological Society, as well as the Harvard Dental Association’s President in 1881. He had fallen in love with golf during this time. Grant created a meadow course next to his country home in the Boston suburb of Arlington Heights, and he continued to play golf there even after his family moved to Beacon Hill.

According to history, he and his playing partners were among the first African-American golfers in post-Civil War America. In Boston, they were praised for the game. Grant, on the other hand, always felt that something was missing from the game, especially when it came to teeing off.

“Teeing the ball up entailed pinching damp sand to form a tee.” “Doing it 18 times a round was enough to irritate Dr. Grant, so he devised an innovation that would have an incalculable influence,” writes Ivy League’s Black History. He “developed a golf tee carved from wood and capped with gutta-percha, a latex compound used in dentistry for root canals,” according to BlackPast.

Grant earned U.S. patent No. 638,920, the world’s first invention for a golf tee, on December 12, 1899. Grant, on the other hand, never advertised his invention. He had the golf tees custom-made in his hometown and handed some to his friends and playing buddies. Many of the golf tees were left in his home after he died in 1910, according to his daughter, Frances, who shared them with Ivy League’s Black History.

However, because Grant’s idea did not reach a wider audience, he went unnoticed for decades. Dr. William Lowell, a dentist from Maplewood, New Jersey, popularized the tee in 1921 by producing the ‘reddy tee,’ which was painted red.

The United States Golf Association officially recognized Grant’s contribution to the game of golf in 1991, almost a century after his patent was issued.

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